REF SYSTEM                                          John Gibson May 1995

        COPYRIGHT University of Sussex 1995. All Rights Reserved.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<        POPLOG SYSTEM        >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<     CONTROL PROCEDURES      >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

This REF file deals  with the top-level  procedures and variables  which
Poplog uses to start  itself up (including the  use of saved images  and
special  flags),  execute  the  language  sub-systems,  perform  runtime
actions, start X,  control the memory  space and exit.  It explains  its
relationship to the operating systems which  call it and how the  Poplog
program is realised.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   General System Startup
      1.1   Saved Images
      1.2   Special Flags
      1.3   Remaining Arguments

  2   Starting up Standard Language Systems

  3   Directory Search Paths (popsavepath and popcomppath)

  4   Additional Startup Mechanism in Unix

  5   Procedures and Variables Concerned with System Startup

  6   Runtime Actions

  7   Starting up X-Windows Facilities

  8   System Exit

  9   Store Management

 10   Saving and Restoring the System State
      10.1  Creating Layered Systems
      10.2  Note on VMS Saved Images
            ... Alpha VMS

 11   Incremental Save and Restore

 12   System Identification
      12.1  Poplog Version
      12.2  Machine & Operating System

1  General System Startup

Poplog, like any other program, is  invoked by issuing a command to  the
operating system command interpreter (DCL on VMS machines, generally the
C-shell on Unix machines).

When Poplog starts up, it converts  the command by which it was  invoked
into a list of strings, which is assigned to the variable poparglist0.

The first element of this list is always the name under which Poplog was
invoked; this is also  assigned to the variable  poparg0. In Unix it  is
the usual '0-th'  argument, while  in VMS  it is  the full  name of  the
Poplog image file being executed  (see poparglist0 below for details  of
command line to argument translation in VMS).

The remaining items  (if any) in  poparglist0 are the  arguments to  the
command that invoked  Poplog, and  the sublist from  the second  element
onwards is  assigned  to  the  variable  poparglist  (from  whence  each
argument is taken as it is processed, so that poparglist always contains
any remaining unprocessed arguments).

The following two types of special argument may occur at the  beginning,
and are always interpreted first by the system:

        where filename is the name of a saved image to restore

        where flag is the name of a special flag

Saved image arguments must come first, followed by special flags.

1.1  Saved Images
These are arguments beginning  with a + character,  and specify a  saved
image to restore: the argument (with the + removed) is taken as the name
of the saved image. For  filenames not including an explicit  directory,
the  directories  given   by  the   environment  variable/logical   name
"popsavepath" are searched (see below).

After restoring the  image, further  arguments beginning  with the  same
character are taken as layered saved images to be restored on top of the
previous one, and so on. Note that a saved image remembers the arguments
for any previous images it was created on top of, and that these will be
resurrected automatically if  omitted. Thus with  a sequence of  layered
images, only  the  last need  be  specified (although  startup  will  be
slightly quicker if all arguments are supplied).

The  base  Poplog  executable  together  with  any  saved  images   then
constitutes the complete  `image' being  run; where  saved image(s)  are
present, control will be passed to the last one after any special  flags
have been processed.

For example,

        pop11 +mysave

(N.B. For upward compatibility reasons, the characters / in VMS and - in
Unix may also  be used  to indicate saved  images, PROVIDING  + has  not
already been used (i.e. + turns  off recognition of these on  subsequent

1.2  Special Flags
Special flags are arguments  that start with the  character `%` (in  VMS
this must  be escaped  with a  preceding `\`,  since `%`  is a  wildcard
character and  the  argument  would  undergo  filename  expansion).  The
following flags are recognised:

    Flag            Action
    ----            ------
    %nort           Prevents execution of any  `runtime actions' in  the
                    image, and stops the variable pop_runtime being  set
                    true. See Runtime Actions below.

    %noinit         Assigns true to the variable pop_noinit.

    %nobanner       Assigns true to the variable pop_nobanner.

    %x              Assigns nil to the variable popunderx.

The %x argument may  optionally be followed by  a parenthesised list  of
arguments, which is assigned  to the variable  popunderx instead of  the
empty list  (as  explained  below  under  poparglist0).  (In  Unix,  the
parentheses must must  be escaped with  a preceding `\`  since they  are
shell metacharacters).

For example,

        pop11 %x \( arg1 arg2 \)        (Unix)
        pop11 \%x ( arg1 arg2 )         (VMS)

Except for pop_runtime, all the  variables associated with command  line
flags have  a  default value  of  false, assigned  if  the flag  is  not
present. They affect subsequent startup behaviour, as described below.

1.3  Remaining Arguments
After processing saved  image and  special flag  arguments, any  runtime
actions in  the  image are  executed  (unless %nort  was  present),  and
control passes to the image.  Where saved image(s) are present,  control
is passed to  the last  one (i.e.  the syssave  or sys_lock_system  that
created it will return true).

Thus the argument  processing described  above applies  when any  Poplog
image or saved  image is run,  and the interpretation  of any  remaining
arguments is  in  general  up  to the  particular  image.  However,  the
standard Poplog  language subsystems  (Pop-11,  Prolog, CLisp  and  PML)
accept further  arguments allowing  them to  be run  in different  modes
(after which as usual, any remaining arguments are in poparglist).

2  Starting up Standard Language Systems

The base Poplog executable is the file

         $popsys/basepop11       (Unix)
         popsys:basepop11        (VMS)

This can be invoked directly under the name "basepop11", but more  often
than not, entry  to Poplog  is via one  of the  four language  subsystem


These are all defined  to run the base  executable together with one  or
more layered saved images appropriate to the particular language.

Command definitions are set up by the Poplog login file:

         $usepop/pop/com/popenv          (Unix)
         usepop:[]      (VMS)

The "pop11" command definition is equivalent to:

         basepop11 +$popsavelib/startup  (Unix)
         basepop11 +popsavelib:startup   (VMS)

The other languages are layered on top of "pop11": the "pml" command for
example (for running Poplog ML) is equivalent to:

         pop11 +$popsavelib/pml          (Unix)
         pop11 +popsavelib:pml           (VMS)

and the "prolog"  and "clisp"  definitions are  similar. (Strictly,  the
directory "popsavelib"  need  not  be  specified  for  the  saved  image
arguments because  it  is  included in  the  search  path  "popsavepath"
described below. However, making it explicit reduces startup time.)

All four language systems can be run in three different modes:

    (1) execute expression mode

    (2) compile file mode

    (3) interactive mode

On startup, they all call  the procedure syssetup, which checks  whether
there is a further as yet unprocessed argument in poparglist, and if so,
processes it as follows:

 o  If the argument is one of

        ved help teach ref doc

    then this indicates  normal interactive startup  but inside the  Ved
    editor (with the given Ved command).  The next argument (if any)  is
    taken as a filename argument for the Ved command. E.g,

        prolog ved

 o  Otherwise, if the first character of  the argument is `:`, mode  (1)
    is chosen. The rest of the argument is treated as a string of source
    text, and  is  compiled. The  system  then exits.  (Note:  arguments
    containing `:`  usually have  to be  quoted, on  both Unix  and  VMS
    systems). E.g,

        pop11 ":1+2=>"

 o  Any other argument is  interpreted as the name  of a source file  to
    compile (i.e.  mode  (2)).  If  the filename  does  not  include  an
    explicit  directory,  the  directories  given  by  the   environment
    variable 'popcomppath' are searched  (see below). Again, the  system
    exits once the file has been compiled. E.g,

        clisp foo.lsp

If there is no argument in poparglist, or if Ved startup was  specified,
then mode (3) is selected, and the system sets itself up for interactive

 o  Unless pop_nobanner has been  set true via  the %nobanner flag,  the
    general Poplog banner  -- popheader followed  by popcopyright --  is
    printed, together with any  language-specific messages from  Prolog,
    Common Lisp or Standard ML.

 o  Unless pop_noinit  has  been set  true  via the  %noinit  flag,  all
    appropriate "init" files are compiled.

 o  If popunderx  has  been set  true  by  the %x  flag,  the  procedure
    sysxsetup (described below)  is called. This  opens a connection  to
    the X server.

 o  If Ved startup  was specified, then  Ved is entered  with the  given

 o  Otherwise, setpop is called.  This calls pop_setpop_compiler,  which
    will run the incremental compiler for the appropriate language.

See Subsystem  Image  Startup in  REF * SUBSYSTEM  for a  more  detailed
description of the procedure  syssetup. For additional information,  see

3  Directory Search Paths (popsavepath and popcomppath)

A  directory  search  path  mechanism  is  supported  for  saved   image
filenames, and Pop-11 source file names specified in mode (2). A  search
path is  an environment  variable/logical  name whose  translation  is a
sequence of directory names, separated  from one another by ':'  (colon)
characters in Unix or "|" (vertical bar) characters in VMS (and in which
an empty  directory name  is interpreted  as the  current  directory). A
filename that does not  include an explicit  directory is then  searched
for in the given sequence of directories.

For saved  images, the  search  path is  given by  "popsavepath",  whose
standard value is

        :$poplib:$poplocalbin:$popsavelib   (Unix)
        |poplib:|poplocalbin:|popsavelib:   (VMS)

(i.e.  search  the   current  directory  first,   then  "poplib",   then
"poplocalbin", and finally "popsavelib".

For Pop-11  source files,  the search  path is  given by  "popcomppath",
whose standard value is

        :$poplib:$poplocalauto:$popautolib:$popliblib   (Unix)
        |poplib:|poplocalauto:|popautolib:|popliblib:   (VMS)

(i.e.  search  the   current  directory  first,   then  "poplib",   then
"poplocalauto", then "popautolib" and finally "popliblib")

4  Additional Startup Mechanism in Unix

In Unix systems  only, there  is an additional  startup mechanism  which
allows the name under which the Poplog  image was invoked to be used  as
an argument. When the system  is invoked under the  name X, it looks  to
see if there is an environment variable called 'pop_X', and if so, makes
the translation string of that variable the first argument (shifting  up
the other arguments  if necessary).  Thus for example,  if you  create a
link called 'mysave' to the Poplog image '$popsys/pop11', and define  an
environment variable:

        setenv pop_mysave "$pop_pop11 +mysave"

then running the command "mysave" will have the same as effect as:

        pop11 +mysave

which in turn is equivalent to:

        basepop11 +startup +mysave

For this reason,  the directory  '$popsys' in fact  contains the  Poplog
image linked under various names (with corresponding 'pop_X' environment
variables defined), thus enabling the  system to be invoked as  "pop11",
"ved", "prolog", etc.

When this translation  occurs, poparglist0 gets  altered to reflect  the
actual command run. In  particular the first element  (arg 0) is set  to
the string  'basepop11'.  However  the  variable  poparg0  contains  the
original arg 0 that Poplog was invoked with.

5  Procedures and Variables Concerned with System Startup

See also Runtime Actions below.

poparglist0 -> list                                 [protected variable]
        Contains the arguments with which Poplog was invoked, as a  list
        of strings (or sub-lists of strings, see below).

        The system initially  constructs a  basic list  of strings,  the
        first element of which is always the name under which the system
        was run (in Unix this is the usual 0-th argument; in VMS, it  is
        the full name of the image file being executed, in lower case.)

        In Unix, the  remaining argument  strings are as  passed by  the
        execve call  that  initiated  the process;  in  VMS,  the  basic
        argument strings are derived as explained below.

        After setting  up the  basic list  of strings,  the system  then
        processes the argument strings '(' and ')' specially. These  are
        treated as "list brackets", and  cause all arguments strings  in
        between to  be  gathered  into  a  single  sub-list  element  of
        poparglist0 (note that when used in a Unix shell command, both (
        and ) must be escaped with  backslash). A sub-list can be  empty
        (i.e. if ')'  immediately follows '('),  or can contain  further
        sub-lists delineated by nested occurrences of '(' and ')',  etc.
        Any non-paired  '(' or  ')'  strings will  cause a  mishap  (and
        system exit).

        Derivation of Argument Strings in VMS
        This simulates a  Unix style shell  with automatic expansion  of
        filenames containing wildcards, as follows:

        Argument strings are  constructed from the  DCL foreign  command
        line by splitting  it at whitespace  boundaries, all  alphabetic
        characters being translated to lower  case. To get spaces,  tabs
        or uppercase alphabetic etc,  in an argument  it must be  quoted
        with double quotes ",  which Poplog then  strips off (note  that
        the trailing quote can be omitted on the last argument).  Inside
        a quoted  argument,  two adjacent  double  quotes are  taken  to
        represent the character ". E.g.

            pop11 +MYsave "aBcD" "" " """

        will produce the 5-element list

            ['usepop:[pop.pop]pop11.exe;1' '+mysave' 'aBcD' ''  "]

        with the last being a string  containing a ". Outside of  quoted
        arguments, a  \  (backslash) can  also  be used  to  escape  the
        following character; thus

            pop11 +mysave a\Bc\D

        will have the same  effect as "aBcD"  (although note that  since
        DCL translates all unquoted lower case to upper, a\bc\d produces
        the same effect).

        Any argument containing the unquoted/unescaped wildcards

            *  %  ...

        is then replaced with  the filenames produced by  sys_file_match
        applied to it (with an empty default filename). There must be at
        least one matching filename.

            In addition (because DCL  foreign command lines are  limited
        to a  maximum  length of  255  characters), a  'file  expansion'
        facility is provided to enable larger numbers of arguments to be
        passed. An argument of the form


        (i.e. beginning with an unquoted/unescaped @), will be  replaced
        in the argument list with all arguments read from the text  file
        filename (or  from  all the  files  matched by  filename  if  it
        contains wildcards).

        The processing of this  file is identical  to the processing  of
        the command line described above, except for newlines (which  do
        not appear  in a  foreign command  line): when  not enclosed  in
        quotes or escaped  these are  treated as  spaces, and  therefore
        serve to separate arguments. (Also, although unquoted  uppercase
        alphabetic is  still translated  to lowercase,  the initial  DCL
        translation of  lower to  upper is  absent --  thus in  a  file,
        a\bc\d will give all lowercase). Files may contain further 'file
        expansion' arguments of the same kind.

        Note also that in a file of arguments a line containing a single
        @ character (and  not inside  quotes) is  taken as  end-of-file.
        While there is no need to  use this when filename is an ordinary
        disk file, it is occasionally  useful for delimiting the end  of
        the arguments when  using @sys$input  in a  DCL command  stream,

poparg0 -> string                                   [protected variable]
        This is  the  first element  of  poparglist0 as  it  was  before
        startup processing.  (In  particular, before  any  rewriting  of
        poparglist0 in response to pop_X environment variables in  Unix.
        If  no   such   rewriting   occurred,  it   is   the   same   as

poparg1 -> string                                      [active variable]
        This active  variable returns  the first  item from  poparglist0
        after poparg0  and any  subsequent specially  flagged  arguments
        (i.e. those beginning with `+`, `-`, or `%`). If no such item is
        present in  poparglist0, false  is returned  instead.  Libraries
        that take special action if loaded on Poplog startup may need to
        examine poparg1 (see LIB * MKREFINDEX for an example).

poparglist -> list                                            [variable]
list -> poparglist
        This is  a trailing  sublist  of poparglist0  (possibly  empty),
        excluding those arguments that  have already been processed  (as
        described in the sections above).

pop_nobanner -> bool                                          [variable]
bool -> pop_nobanner
        This variable is  set by  the %nobanner argument  to Poplog.  If
        set, printing of  the Poplog banner  is suppressed. Its  default
        value is false.

pop_noinit -> bool                                            [variable]
bool -> pop_noinit
        This variable is set by the %noinit argument to Poplog. If  set,
        it  suppresses  the  call  of  "init"  files  on  normal  Poplog
        language-image startup  (see below).  This means  that  'init.p'
        files, etc will not be compiled.

sys_process_poparg1(expr_compiler, file_compiler, extn)      [procedure]
        This procedure  implements standard  Poplog argument  processing
        for expression or file compilation.  It examines the first  item
        in poparglist.

        If  that  item   begins  with   a  colon   (:),  the   procedure
        expr_compiler is applied to  a character repeater that  contains
        all the characters (except  the colon) from  all the strings  in

        Otherwise, the first  item in poparglist  is considered to  be a
        filename. If it doesn't include  an extension part, extn  (which
        should be a string) is appended.

        If  the  filename  includes  a  directory  part,  the  procedure
        file_compiler is applied  to it. Otherwise,  for each  directory
        name  specified  in  the  environment  variable   "popcomppath",
        file_compiler is applied to the directory name concatenated with
        the  filename.  In  either  case,  if  file_compiler   returns a
        non-false  result,  sys_process_poparg1  returns;   otherwise, a
        mishap results.

        On normal Pop-11 startup,  sys_process_poparg1 is invoked  (from
        syssetup) as follows:

            sys_process_poparg1(pop11_compile, trycompile, '.p')

sys_parse_poparglist(argspec, arglist) -> (prop, rest)       [procedure]
        This procedure is used  for processing Unix shell-style  command
        line arguments to Poplog. It assumes  that arglist is a list  of
        the form

            [ flag1 arg1 flag2 arg2 ... ]

        where arg1, arg2 etc are optional.

        sys_parse_poparglist  returns  two  results,  a  property   prop
        mapping flags  specified  in  argspec to  argument  values  from
        arglist, and  rest, a  list of  the items  remaining in  arglist
        after all the  flags and  their associated  arguments have  been

        argspec should be a list  of two-element lists or vectors,  each
        of the form

            [ flag 0-or-1 ]

        If the  second element  is  0, then  an  occurrence of  flag  in
        arglist will cause true to be associated with it in the property
        prop. If the second element is  1, then an occurence of flag  in
        arglist will cause the item following flag to be associated with
        it in the property prop.

        sys_parse_poparglist  will  signal   errors  in  the   following
        situations: if the same flag  occurs more than once in  arglist,
        or if a flag that should be followed by argument is not followed
        by one.

        An example:

            vars p r;
                [['-a' 1] ['-b' 0] ['-c' 1]],
                ['-c' 3 '-a' 1 '-b' 4 5 6]) -> (p, r);
                p('-a') =>
                ** 1
                p('-b') =>
                ** <true>
                p('-c') =>
                ** 3
                r =>
                ** [4 5 6]

        sys_parse_poparglist is  not  used during  the  standard  Poplog
        startup sequence; it is intended  for library programs that  are
        run as arguments to Poplog (e.g. LIB * MKIMAGE).

sysinitcomp()                                                [procedure]
        Called by  the standard  Poplog language  images on  startup  to
        compile 'init.p' files (except when invoked with expression/file
        compilation arguments, etc, or when Poplog was given the %noinit
        special flag).

        If it exists, '$popsys/init.p' ('popsys:init.p' on VMS, etc)  is
        first  compiled;  then  if  '$poplib/init.p'  exists,  that   is
        compiled, otherwise 'init.p'  in the current  directory if  that

setpop()                                                     [procedure]
        Resets the Poplog system: unwinds all procedure calls, restoring
        dynamic local values, and clears the user stack, etc.

        If this  is  the  first setpop  (indicated  by  pop_first_setpop
        true), or if standard  input (pop_charin_device) is a  terminal,
        then pop_setpop_compiler  is  called to  (re)start  compilation.
        Otherwise, sysexit is called to exit the system.

        If compilation is restarted, pop_first_setpop is set false,  and
        the variables cucharout  and cucharerr  are set  to charout  and
        charerr respectively.

pop_setpop_compiler()                     [protected procedure variable]
        Called by setpop after the system has been reset.

        In the base Poplog executable and standard language images,  the
        default value of this variable  is a procedure which  (re)starts
        compilation  for  the  subsystem   specified  by  the   variable
        subsystem. That is, it

            o Checks  that  the  compiler   and  other  procedures   for
              subsystem are loaded;

            o Calls the subsystem SS_RESET procedure;

            o Calls the subsystem SS_COMPILER  procedure with charin  as

        In addition, the variable pop_compiler_subsystem is locally  set
        to subsystem (meaning that this represents a  compiler-subsystem
        barrier). See REF * SUBSYSTEM for information about subsystems.

        pop_setpop_compiler is also called by vedsetpop after  resetting
        'immediate mode'  in Ved.  (vedsetpop  locally redefines  it  to
        perform the  same actions  as above,  but with  vederror  called
        instead of mishap if errors occur, etc.)

        (Note however, that in the XVed standalone image, the  top-level
        value of pop_setpop_compiler does  something different. It  does
        not a  run  a  top-level  compiler, but  merely  waits  for  and
        processes XVed events.)

pop_first_setpop -> bool                                      [variable]
bool -> pop_first_setpop
        true before  setpop  is  first  called,  and  thereafter  false.
        (Although setting it back to true will force the next setpop  to
        reset,  regardless  of  whether  pop_charin_device  represents a

6  Runtime Actions

Poplog compilers  generally allow  source files  to contain  `top-level'
code, that is, code which is executed at compile-time to perform various
setting-up actions.

However, when  compiling  source  code  to produce  a  saved  image  (or
compiling  with  Popc  to  produce   an  executable  image,  etc),   the
compile-time execution  of some  kinds of  action may  be  inappropriate
because they depend on the run-time environment in which the image  will
actually be used (for example, a procedure that sets up for a particular
type of terminal).

The system therefore provides  a mechanism whereby  such actions can  be
automatically deferred  until the  appropriate time.  Essentially,  this
comes down to a global  list of procedures (pop_runtime_actions),  which
are executed whenever an image or  saved image starts up -- UNLESS  that
image is  run with  the  special argument  %nort.  That is,  the  system
assumes that `now' is `run-time' except when this argument is present.

Action   procedures   are   accumulated   in   the   first   place   (in
pop_runtime_actions) by the procedure sys_runtime_apply. This tests  the
boolean variable pop_runtime  to determine whether  an action should  be
executed  immediately   or   added  to   pop_runtime_actions.   However,
pop_runtime can only be set by the system on image startup, because when
one image is being  built on another, all  actions from the first  image
must go un-executed into the new image (together with any new ones).

Thus pop_runtime  is only  false when  the current  image was  run  with
%nort. Running an image without %nort sets it true, as well as executing
any existing actions.

pop_runtime -> bool                                 [protected variable]
        This boolean variable  indicates whether `now'  is `runtime'  or
        not. It will have  a true value  unless the current  image/saved
        image being run was given the startup argument %nort.

        When true, its  value is  either the  boolean true  or the  word
        "undef" ; the latter value indicates that the image did not have
        any runtime  actions.  Thus  true indicates  that  actions  have
        actually been run.

        (N.B. Rather than  setting it false,  %nort actually leaves  the
        value of  pop_runtime  unaltered. Thus  %nort  doesn't  actually
        guarantee that pop_runtime is false, since it may have been true
        already in the image. However, this can only happen when running
        a `compromised'  saved image,  i.e.  one created  after  runtime
        actions have  been run,  and  will NOT  occur  with any  of  the
        standard Poplog saved images or the base system.)

pop_runtime_actions -> list                         [protected variable]
        The list  of action  procedures to  be executed  at runtime.  If
        pop_runtime is true this  list will always  be empty, since  any
        existing actions will  have been  run already, and  no new  ones
        will accumulate.

        (Note that when running action procedures on image startup, this
        list is tailed  before running  each procedure;  thus an  action
        procedure can determine which procedures are yet to be run.)

sys_runtime_apply(action_p)                                  [procedure]
        This procedure  `applies' a  runtime-action procedure  action_p.
        That is, if pop_runtime is already true it simply calls


        Otherwise, if pop_runtime is false, it adds action_p to the  end
        of the list of procedures in pop_runtime_actions.

7  Starting up X-Windows Facilities

As explained above  the command  line flag %x  can be  used to  assign a
non-false value to popunderx. This also causes sysxsetup to be run.

Instead of using the command line, users who expect always to be running
Poplog under X windows may put into their init.p files something like:

        unless islist(popunderx) do
            [] -> popunderx;

popunderx -> list_or_false                                    [variable]
list_or_false -> popunderx
        This variable is set to  a list if the  %x command line flag  is
        used when Poplog is started up, as described above. Otherwise it
        is assigned the default value false.

        If %x is  followed in the  command line by  a bracketed list  of
        arguments i.e. between `(` and `)`, then a corresponding list of
        strings is constructed and assigned  to popunderx. If %x is  not
        qualified, nil  is assigned  to  popunderx. If  popunderx  has a
        non-false value, various procedures  will assume that Poplog  is
        running under X. (This may cause  obscure errors if no X  server
        is available.)

sysxsetup()                                         [procedure variable]
        This procedure is run by syssetup if popunderx is non-false (eg,
        when Poplog is invoked with the %x flag.) Its default value is a
        procedure  which  simply  calls  XptDefaultSetup  to  create  an
        application context with name  derived from -poparg0- and  class
        'Poplog' (for use in app-defaults, .xrdb files etc), and then to
        create  a  single  display  connection.  These  are  stored   in
        XptDefaultAppContext and XptDefaultDisplay (initially, they  are

        The user's init.p file, or  some other program can directly  run
        sysxsetup or XptDefaultSetup whether or not the %x flag has been
        used. Knowledgeable users may set up connections to an X  server
        in other ways. See also HELP * X

        Since syssetup calls sysxsetup after sysinitcomp, sysxsetup  can
        be redefined in init.p or initx.p if desired.

8  System Exit

sysexit()                                                    [procedure]
        Exits the Poplog  system: closes  all files and  returns to  the
        operating system:  the  variable  procedure  popexit  is  called
        before doing this.  sysexit is  called by setpop  when it  reads
        <termin> from the standard input.

popexit()                                           [procedure variable]
        Holds a procedure to be run  on exit from the system, i.e.  when
        sysexit is called (thus the procedure in popexit may prevent the
        system from actually exiting, e.g.  by doing a setpop).  Default
        value is identfn.

        (Note that in Unix Poplog, sysexit is called in certain  'fatal'
        conditions where the system  is forced to  exit, for example  by
        HUP or TERM  signals (see REF * ASYNC).  Since attempting to  do
        I/O on terminals in  this state may cause  the process to  hang,
        any of the standard devices popdevin/out/err and poprawdevin/out
        which represent a terminal are replaced by null devices. popexit
        procedures which  attempt to  do terminal  I/O should  therefore
        take this into account, by first testing whether the appropriate
        device is  in fact  a  terminal (and  do  nothing if  not).  The
        correct test to use in this context is

                systrmdev(dev) == true

        which will be  true only if  dev is a  terminal and, in  systems
        with Berkeley job control, only  if the process is a  foreground
        job -- see REF * SYSIO.)

pop_exit_ok -> bool                                           [variable]
bool -> pop_exit_ok
        Controls the status value returned  by sysexit to the  operating
        system: if false, the standard error code (1 in Unix,  SS$_ABORT
        in VMS) is returned, otherwise  the standard success code (0  in
        Unix, SS$_NORMAL in VMS).

        The default value is true, but  note that a call of mishap  will
        set it false if the standard input is not a terminal (since  the
        default value of interrupt under these circumstances is sysexit,
        this guarantees that  a mishap  will result in  an error  status
        being returned).  It is  also set  false by  the default  signal
        handlers for HUP and TERM (see popexit above).

fast_sysexit()                                               [procedure]
        Exits the Poplog system without doing any of the tidying actions
        described above. That  is, it does  not flush internal  buffers,
        does not call popexit and does not write unwritten Ved files.

9  Store Management

popgcratio -> int                                             [variable]
int -> popgcratio
        Controls the weighting of garbage collection time in determining
        memory allocation for the system. After each garbage collection,
        the decision as to whether expand or contract memory is made  by

            (average automatic GC CPU time) * popgcratio
            --------------------------------------------   - 1
                (average program CPU time between GCs)

        and then expanding or contracting by an amount proportional both
        to this  value,  and  to  the amount  of  new  memory  used  for
        structures since the last garbage collection.

        The maximum  permitted value  for  popgcratio is  1024,  default
        value is 40.

        popmemlim imposes  an  absolute upper  limit  on the  amount  of
        expansion. If  this is  set too  low, the  frequency of  garbage
        collections may be far greater than necessary.

        Also see * popgctrace.

popmemlim -> int                                              [variable]
int_or_false -> popmemlim
        This  (active)  integer  variable  specifies  the  (approximate)
        maximum number of words  to which the  system should expand  the
        combined memory area for the heap and user stack. When  reached,
        (or on some occasions, slightly  exceeded), the system will  not
        expand further, and the mishap

           'ROM: MEMORY LIMIT (popmemlim) EXCEEDED (using XXXX space)'

        results. Here XXXX  is 'heap',  'stack' or  'fixed' to  indicate
        whether the memory allocation request that caused the mishap was
        for  an   ordinary  heap   structure,  the   user  stack,   or a
        fixed-address heap structure.

        The default value is 300000 (but higher defaults are used by the
        Prolog and Lisp systems); if this  is not large enough for  your
        program, you  should  experiment with  increasing  it  gradually
        (e.g. in steps of 100000, or doubling it, etc). Increasing it by
        too large  an amount  may cause  garbage collections  to  become
        slower, by  virtue  of  there being  insufficient  extra  memory
        available to  use the  copying  algorithm (see  pop_gc_copy  and
        popgctrace below).

        Assigning false (or a positive  biginteger) to popmemlim is  the
        same as assigning the maximum  possible value (i.e. the  largest
        simple integer).

        Note that, regardless of popmemlim, the mishap

            'ROM: NO MORE MEMORY AVAILABLE (needing XXXX space)'

        may also occur.  This indicates  that the system  can expand  no
        further, because  no  more  memory can  be  allocated  from  the
        operating system (either because of a set limit on process size,
        or through a lack of swap space, etc).

        popmemlim cannot be  set smaller  than the current  size of  the
        heap/user stack area; any value less than this will be  replaced
        with the current size.

        (See   also    pop_callstack_lim    in    REF * PROCEDURE    and
        pop_prolog_lim in REF * PROLOG.)

popminmemlim -> int                                           [variable]
int -> popminmemlim
        This (active) integer variable  specifies the minimum number  of
        words at which the system should maintain the combined heap/user
        stack memory area. When below this limit, the system will expand
        up to it at the next garbage collection (if it can); thereafter,
        it will never contract below this limit.

sysgarbage()                                                 [procedure]
        Forces the system  to do  a garbage collection.  (Note that  the
        time for such a user-invoked garbage collection is not  included
        in the automatic GC time total -- see popgcratio below).

        (For information on user-specified actions to be performed  when
        a  structure   is   about   to   be   garbage   collected,   see
        REF * sys_destroy_action.)

pop_after_gc()                                      [procedure variable]
        The procedure  in  this  variable is  run  after  every  garbage
        collection (default value identfn).

pop_gc_copy -> bool                                           [variable]
bool -> pop_gc_copy
        If this variable is true (the default), then garbage collections
        use  a  'copying'  algorithm,  which  temporarily  requires  the
        allocation of extra memory in which to copy all non-locked  heap
        structures; otherwise (or  if the required  extra memory is  not
        available), a 'non-copying' algorithm is used.

        The non-copying algorithm is generally 25% - 50% slower than the
        copying one (although in some  situations it may be faster,  and
        therefore worth setting this variable false). (Note however that
        at certain  times the  system needs  to be  able to  shift  heap
        structures up in memory, and  requires the copying algorithm  to
        do  this;  thus  copying   collections  may  still  occur   when
        pop_gc_copy is false.)

popgctrace -> bool_or_int                                     [variable]
bool_or_int -> popgctrace
        If this variable (default value false) is true then a message is
        output after each  garbage collection,  giving the  GC time  and
        details of memory allocation (the characters of the message  are
        output through cucharout).

        The first line of the message has the form

            GC-code(X) time MEM: u used + f free + s stack = total

        where code is a  4-letter code indicating  why the GC  happened,
        and time is the time for the garbage collection in seconds. X is
        a letter indicating which garbage collection algorithm was  used
        (C = copying, N = non-copying).

        Values for code are as follows:

            code    Reason Indicated
            ----    ----------------
            auto    The combined area for relocatable structures and the
                    user stack was full.

            fixd    The area for fixed-address structures was full.

            ftbl    The internal table  of open  files/devices was  full
                    when trying to open a  device. (A GC can free  space
                    in  this  table  by  closing  and  removing  garbage

            fopn    The operating-system imposed limit on the number  of
                    open devices  was  reached  when  trying  to  open a
                    device. (By closing garbage  devices, a GC can  make
                    more available.)

            plog    The  combined  area   for  the   Prolog  trail   and
                    continuation stack was full.

            save    GC done by syssave.

            lock    GC done by sys_lock_system.

            user    Direct call of sysgarbage from a user program.

        If popgctrace has  any non-false  value other  than an  integer,
        only  the  first  line  is  output.  Additional  information  is
        obtained by  giving  it  an integer  value,  whose  bits  select
        further message lines as follows:

            Bit     Meaning
            ---     -------
             0      Same as  setting  both  bits 2  and  3  (for  upward
                    compatibility in assigning  1 to  get the  callstack
                    and Prolog information).

             1      Fixed-address structures; prints

                        FIXED: u used + fb freeblks + f free = total

                    where used  is the  number of  words used  by  fixed
                    structures,  freeblks   the   number  used   up   in
                    (discontiguous) free  blocks,  free  the  number  of
                    (contiguous) free, and total the total. These values
                    are included in the first-line totals, freeblks  and
                    free being subsumed together under total words free.

                    (Note that  space  for fixed-address  structures  is
                    allocated from free blocks if possible, but  because
                    of fragmentation a given figure for freeblks doesn't
                    imply that  that  much  is actually  usable  in  any

             2      Callstack; prints

                        CALLSTACK: cstack

                    where  cstack  is  the  number  of  words  used   by
                    procedure-call stack frames.

             3      Prolog store area; prints

                      PROLOG: trail trl + free free + contn ctn = total

                    where trl is the number of words used by the  trail,
                    free the number  free, ctn  the number  used by  the
                    continuation stack, and total the total.

        The MEM figures refer to totals  for all heap segments: used  is
        the number of words  used by structures,  free the number  free,
        stack the number taken by the  user stack, and total the  total.
        If the  heap is  locked with  sys_lock_heap then  an  additional
        l lock figure precedes used, i.e.

         GC-code(X) time MEM: l lock + u used + f free + s stack = total

        where lock is the  total number of words  in the locked part  of
        the heap (note this includes both used and unused space).

popgctime -> int                                    [protected variable]
        Contains the total cpu time spent doing non user-invoked garbage
        collections,  in  1/100ths  second.  Also  see  popgctrace   and

popmemused -> int                                   [protected variable]
        Contains the total number of words of heap memory in use at  the
        last garbage collection.

sys_lock_heap()                                              [procedure]
        Tells the system to 'lock' the heap at its current endpoint. The
        effect of this is  that all structures in  the heap before  this
        point will automatically be treated as non-garbage (considerably
        reducing the amount of work needed  to be done on them  during a
        garbage collection). Structures created after the  sys_lock_heap
        will be treated normally.

        It is sensible to call sysgarbage before sys_lock_heap. E.g.  at
        the end of a file which  compiles a lot of procedures which  are
        not going to be edited, do

                sysgarbage(); sys_lock_heap();

        See also sys_lock_system below.

sys_unlock_heap()                                            [procedure]
        Reverses the  effect of  sys_lock_heap, so  that all  structures
        previously locked in now participate  fully in the next  garbage

pop_malloc_min_alloc -> Nbytes                                [variable]
Nbytes -> pop_malloc_min_alloc
        (Unix Only) This active variable controls the minimum amount  of
        memory that  Poplog's version  of UNIX * malloc  should  request
        from the  operating system  each time  it requires  further  new

        Continual malloc requests  for new memory  (i.e. resulting  from
        external procedure calls) may lead to excessive segmentation  of
        the Poplog heap  if they  alternate too  frequently with  Poplog
        heap expansion,  and  may  eventually result  in  Poplog's  heap
        segment table overflowing (with the mishap 'MEMORY SEGMENT TABLE

        Assigning a higher value to pop_malloc_min_alloc will cure  this

10  Saving and Restoring the System State

There are two procedures  that create Poplog  saved images: syssave  and
sys_lock_system. The latter  is always  to be  preferred for  creating a
proper `system'  image  (even  without  other layers  on  top),  and  is
described in the next section.

Note that from Version 14.1 of Poplog, there is an essential interaction
between saved images  and runtime actions  (see Runtime Actions  above).
Basically, this means that any saved image created after runtime actions
have been executed is `deficient' or `compromised' in the sense that  it
may fail to work properly in one  or more respects (or indeed, at  all).
This happens when the system in which  you are saving the image was  NOT
started with the special argument %nort.

If you are just  using e.g. syssave to  save some work informally,  this
may or may  not matter  (and in  any event,  cannot be  helped). To  use
either procedure to  create a `proper'  (or `production quality')  saved
image, you MUST run the image in which you compile your system with  the
%nort argument  (which  allows  runtime actions  to  accumulate  and  go
unexecuted into your saved image).

(Runtime actions are particularly relevant to certain uses of externally
loading -- in fact, the main purpose for which they were introduced. See

syssave(filename) -> restored                                [procedure]
        Saves the total  state of  the Poplog  system in  a file  called
        filename (this includes  the state  of external  loading --  for
        details see REF * EXTERNAL).

        The result of this  procedure is false  on immediate return;  on
        restoring the file with sysrestore (qv) the result will be true.

        filename may be either a word or a string: if a word, '.psv'  is

        (In VMS, see Note on VMS Saved Images below.)

sysrestore(filename)                                         [procedure]
sysrestore(filename, mode)
        Restores the Poplog system to be in the state it was at the time
        the saved image specified by  the filename filename was  created
        (with syssave or sys_lock_system). Note however that

            ¤ The standard files (popdevin, popdevout, popdeverr);
            ¤ poparglist and popenvlist;
            ¤ poppid and popusername.

        all remain as they were before the call of sysrestore.

        When this procedure exits, it will be as if the call of  syssave
        or sys_lock_system that created the file had returned, but  with
        true as result instead of false.

        By default, a mishap will result if either (a) filename does not
        exist, or (b) the identification  string from filename does  not
        match the current value of pop_system_version (i.e. filename may
        only be restored into  the same system  environment in which  it
        was created).

        The optional  boolean argument  mode can  be used  to  prevent a
        mishap occurring in either of these cases. false means no mishap
        for case  (a), true  means  no mishap  for  either (a)  or  (b).
        Instead of producing a mishap, sysrestore will simply return  to
        its caller (with no result).

        filename may be either a word or a string: if a word, '.psv'  is

        VMS  Note:  If  filename  is   a  shareable  image  created   by
        sys_lock_system the nonwriteable part of filename will be shared
        between all users in  the same group,  unless filename has  been
        installed with  sys_install_image  to be  shareable  system-wide
        (i.e. there is a permanent system global section for it).

pop_after_restore()                                 [procedure variable]
        The procedure in this variable is run by sysrestore  immediately
        after a successful restore  and before returning (default  value

10.1  Creating Layered Systems
The procedure  sys_lock_system makes  possible the  creation of  layered
systems in Poplog. It takes the current heap endpoint to be the boundary
of a self-contained 'system' on top of which other layers will be built,
and is similar to a sys_lock_heap combined with an (optional) syssave to
create a saved image for the new system. However, its behaviour  differs
from this in two important respects:

    First, the locking of the current contents of the heap is permanent,
and cannot be undone; the structures locked in cease to be 'part of  the
heap', and  become  'part  of the  system'.  Second,  all  (relocatable)
structures are  partitioned  into two  areas  of memory:  writeable  and
nonwriteable  (the  structures  put  in  the  nonwriteable  area  become
physically write-protected, so that  any subsequent attempt to  update a
field in  one of  them will  cause  an error).  The importance  of  this
partitioning is that

    (a) nonwriteable structures  mean that  garbage collection  time  is
        reduced (since the garbage collector can just ignore them);

    (b) if a  saved image  is being  created, the  area of  nonwriteable
        structures can (at least in principle) be made shareable by  all
        users of the saved image;

    (c) it is unnecessary  for the  nonwriteable area to  be saved  when
        creating further saved images on  top of the new system  (either
        with syssave or with another sys_lock_system).

(Note that a major  consequence of (c) is  that subsequent saved  images
created on  top  of  the  new  system can  only  be  restored  into  the
environment of that system, and NOT into basic Poplog -- i.e. one  saved
image must be layered on top of another.)

    The above considerations make it  desirable that as many  structures
as possible go into  the nonwriteable area. To  facilitate this, and  to
provide means to ensure that structures that must be writeable are  kept
so, there is a 3-level mechanism for specifying which structures  should
be put where:

    (1) At an  individual level,  with the  property  sys_writeable_prop
        (and the operators  writeable and nonwriteable  which assign  to
        it, see  below).  An  individual  structure  can  be  marked  as
        definitely writeable or definitely nonwriteable.

    (2) A class default, with an optional "writeable" or  "nonwriteable"
        attribute for the key of a  class of structures (see conskey  in
        REF * KEYS). If present, this default is used for any  structure
        of the class not individually marked in (1).

    (3) A general  default specified  directly to  sys_lock_system,  for
        anything not covered by (1) or (2).

Of the data structures built into the system, all the  'non-specialised'
types such as  pairs (and  so lists), and  the vector-classes  (strings,
full vectors,  etc),  have neither  a  writeable or  nonwriteable  class
default. They  are  thus  governed  by  the  general  default  given  to
sys_lock_system, and for this to be  nonwriteable you may need to  apply
writeable to  some individual  structures of  this type  (as system  and
library code  does).  (The  one  exception  to  this  is  single-element
references: these have a writeable class default).

Otherwise, specialised  built-in types  have  a default  which  reflects
their function,  e.g  words and  variable  identifiers are  always  kept
writeable; numbers such as bigintegers, ratios and complex which have no
updateable fields are nonwriteable, etc. Certain specific structures the
system knows cannot be updated are  also made nonwriteable (such as  the
strings of  word records).  The  default for  any  existing key  can  be
determined with class_attribute (see REF * KEYS).

    One class requiring special mention  is procedures (and closures  in
particular). These have a nonwriteable  default, and so the pdprops  and
updater fields become non-assignable  in any procedure not  individually
marked writeable; for closures  this applies to  the pdpart and  frozval
fields  also.  However  (since  they  are  sometimes  used  in  a  'data
structure' mode where the frozvals need to be updated),  sys_lock_system
allows a writeable default for closures to be specified.

    (N.B. None of  the above  applies to  fixed-address structures  used
with external procedures. These cannot be moved into nonwriteable areas,
and so always remain writeable.)

sys_lock_system(false, mode_flags, system_id)                [procedure]
sys_lock_system(filename, mode_flags, system_id) -> restored
        Permanently  locks  the   current  heap  as   a  new   'system',
        partitioning all relocatable heap structures into writeable  and
        nonwriteable memory areas, and optionally saves the system state
        in a saved image (see the general description of this  procedure

        (Note that the variable  pop_record_writeable should usually  be
        set true before commencing compilation of a program to be  saved
        with sys_lock_system -- see Note 1 below.)

        The arguments are as follows:

            false in the first form, or a filename string in the second.

            If   filename    is    supplied,    then    following    the
            writeable/nonwriteable partitioning,  a  'special'  call  of
            syssave with  filename  argument filename  creates  a  saved
            image to preserve the initial  state of the new system.  The
            result  of  syssave  is  returned  as  the  result  of  this
            sys_lock_system, i.e. false after saving, true on restoring.
            (The call  is  'special' in  the  sense that  it  saves  the
            nonwriteable  area,  whereas   any  subsequent  syssave   or
            sys_lock_system will not.)

            When the argument is false,  no saved image is created,  and
            no result is returned.

            An integer argument, in which bits 0 - 2 have the following

               Bit  Meaning
               ---  -------
                0   On restoring  the  saved image,  this  bit  controls
                    whether the memory into which the nonwriteable  area
                    is mapped will be shared  by all users of the  image
                    (but see Note 4 below):
                        0 = unshared, 1 = shared

                1   This bit determines  the default  placement for  all
                    structures  not  individually  or  class-marked   as
                        0 = writeable, 1 = nonwriteable

                2   Normally,   closures    not   individually    marked
                    writeable/nonwriteable   default   to   nonwriteable
                    (since  they  are  procedures,  and  procedures  are
                    class-marked nonwriteable). Setting this bit  allows
                    user closures  (but not  protected system  ones)  to
                    default to writeable:
                      0 = closures nonwriteable, 1 = closures writeable

            (N.B. For compatibility with  older versions of Poplog,  the
            mode_flags argument  may  also  be  a  boolean,  true  being
            equivalent to 2:001 and false to 2:000, i.e. general default
            writeable/closure  default  nonwriteable,  with  or  without

            A  system   identification  string.   As  mentioned   above,
            subsequent  saved   images  created   in  the   new   system
            environment can be only  restored into the same  environment
            (either without  ever  leaving  it or  after  restoring  the
            system saved  image).  To  ensure that  any  attempt  to  do
            otherwise   is   trapped   as   an   error,   the   variable
            pop_system_version holds  an identification  string for  the
            current system,  this  being  recorded on  any  saved  image
            created therein. sysrestore will  produce an error if  asked
            to restore an image whose identification does not equal  the
            current value of pop_system_version.

            For the new system being created, pop_system_version is  set
            to  the  system_id  string  'timestamped'  by  concatenating
            sysdaytime() onto the end.


        (1) The variable pop_record_writeable should usually be set true
            before commencing compilation of a program to be saved  with
            sys_lock_system. This  is because  many system  and  library
            routines rely  on  the  writeable operator  to  ensure  that
            individual structures  they use  are kept  writeable  (which
            becomes ineffective when pop_record_writeable is false).

            To guard against  this, sys_lock_system will  mishap if  any
            necessary  call   to   writeable  was   ignored   owing   to
            pop_record_writeable being false. 'Necessary' in this  sense
            means  that  (with  the   given  mode_flags  argument)   the
            structure(s) for which  writeable was  ignored would  become

        (2) After processing  the  entries  in  sys_writeable_prop,  the
            property is cleared  (since the  entries are  of no  further
            use). In  addition,  pop_record_writeable is  set  to  false

        (3) To reflect  the fact  that  the nonwriteable  and  writeable
            areas  have  been  removed  from  the  heap,  popmemlim  and
            popminmemlim are  reduced  by  their  total  size  (but  for
            popmemlim, not below 32K words).

        (4) Although bit 0  in the mode_flags  argument may always  take
            either  value,  whether  or  not  sharing  actually  happens
            depends upon  the operating  system. Currently  (May  1995),
            sharing is possible in VMS, Sun0S and OSF1 (but not HP-UX).

            (In addition in VMS,  sharing is only  between users in  the
            same group unless the procedure sys_install_image is used to
            make the image globally  shareable, see below. Don't  make a
            VMS image shared unless it really needs to be, i.e. will  be
            used concurrently by several users on a regular basis, since
            shared images consume VMS system resources.)

        (5) In VMS, see also Note on VMS Saved Images below.

sys_writeable_prop(item) -> status                           [procedure]
status -> sys_writeable_prop(item)
        This is  a  temporary  property whose  entries  are  scanned  by
        sys_lock_system   (and    Popc   compilation)    to    determine
        writability/non-writability  for  individual  structures  (after
        which the property is cleared).

        If an entry exists for a given item, its status value must  be a
        boolean, true meaning writeable, false meaning nonwriteable (the
        default value of the property, when no entry exists, is the word

        N.B. Any  entry in  the  property for  a non-heap  structure  or
        simple object will be ignored.

writeable    item -> item                                   [operator 1]
nonwriteable item -> item                                   [operator 1]
        These two operators provide a  convenient way of making  entries
        for individual structures  in sys_writeable_prop,  but doing  so
        only when sys_lock_system is going  to be used (as indicated  by
        pop_record_writeable being true).

        If  pop_record_writeable  is  true,  item  is  marked  with   an
        appropriate entry in sys_writeable_prop, true for writeable  and
        false for nonwriteable. However, there are two special cases:

            ¤ If item is  a pair whose  back is another  pair, then  the
              back pair is also marked (and so on recursively,  allowing
              all pairs in a list to be marked writeable/nonwriteable);

            ¤ If item is  an array  procedure, then  the arrayvector  of
              item is marked, not item  itself (since this is what  will
              actually be updated if the array is assigned to).

        In any event, both operators return the argument item as result.
        This allows  them  to  be  used e.g.  in  front  of  constructor
        expressions like

                constant list = writeable [%1, 2, 3, 4%];


pop_record_writeable -> bool                                  [variable]
bool -> pop_record_writeable
        Unless sys_lock_system  is going  to be  used, entries  made  in
        sys_writeable_prop  are  wasted  space.  This  variable   allows
        writeable  and  nonwriteable  to  be  used  freely  in  programs
        (including system  and  library  code),  while  preventing  them
        making sys_writeable_prop entries except when necessary.

        Since its default value is false, it should usually be set  true
        before commencing  compilation of  a program  to be  saved  with
        sys_lock_system.  (It   is   automatically   set   true   during
        compilation of a file with  Popc.) sys_lock_system will in  fact
        mishap if any necessary call  to writeable was ignored owing  to
        pop_record_writeable   being   false    (see   Note   1    under
        * sys_lock_system above).

sys_install_image(filename, install)                         [procedure]
        This procedure is  currently available only  in VMS systems.  In
        VMS, the nonwriteable part of a shareable saved image created by
        sys_lock_system is by default shared  only between users in  the
        same group; this  procedure enables or  disables its sharing  by
        all users in the system. To operate, however, the Poplog process
        running the procedure must have the privileges

            SYSGBL (create/delete system global section)
            PRMGBL (create/delete permanent global section)

        If the boolean argument install is true, the image specified  by
        filename is 'installed', i.e.  made shareable system-wide.  (The
        blocks comprising  the nonwriteable  area are  made a  permanent
        system global section.)

        If install is false, filename is de-installed and will revert to
        group sharing. (An existing permanent system global section  for
        filename is deleted.)

10.2  Note on VMS Saved Images
Poplog, in common with  other VMS programs,  uses VMS shareable  images.
Certain standard shareable images are already in use in the basic Poplog
system (popsys:basepop11.exe), and others may be externally loaded while
the system is running (see REF * EXTERNAL). In both cases, the shareable
images reside in  fixed size  memory areas  inside Poplog,  and this  is
reflected  in   the  saved   images  produced   by  both   syssave   and
sys_lock_system: when a  saved image is  restored, the shareable  images
are activated and mapped into their appropriate areas.

    However, in new releases of VMS, standard shareable images can  grow
in size (through addition  of new facilities  or extensions to  existing
ones). If the total  growth in a  new release is too  much, one or  more
images may overflow the area Poplog  had allowed for them at the  time a
saved image was  created, and in  this event the  saved image cannot  be
restored. (Thus a saved image may work  in the VMS release in which  was
created, but fail  to work  in a later  release.) If  this happens,  the



    Although there is no complete  solution to this problem, the  system
does allow you to  control the `safety margin'  of space it leaves  free
for shareable image expansion. This  is specified by giving the  logical


an integer percentage value; the system will then leave that percent  of
the shareable  images' size  free for  expansion. For  example, the  DCL

    $ define pop_shrim_margin 20

will allow 20%  for expansion.  (If "pop_shrim_margin" is  not set,  the
default is 10%.)

The mishap above also  tries to be helpful  in this respect by  printing

    INVOLVING: 'expansion margin allowed A%, needed N%'

where A was the  expansion margin allowed for  when the saved image  was
built, and  N is  the (minimum)  margin that  would have  actually  been
needed for the saved image to restore successfully.

    Note that as regards  those shareable images already  in use in  the
basic Poplog  executable,  "pop_shrim_margin" is  only  effective  for a
saved image created directly on top of basic Poplog. For example, if you
are creating a saved  image on top of  the standard Prolog saved  image,
and you wish to give  it a bigger safety  margin, you must first  remake
the standard Prolog image  with "pop_shrim_margin" set accordingly  (and
then rebuild your image on  top -- for which "pop_shrim_margin"  becomes
irrelevant  unless   your  program   involves  other   externally-loaded
shareable images).

    Unfortunately, there is no way  of predicting by how much  shareable
images will expand in any given  release of VMS. A 10% expansion  margin
is probably  sufficient to  cope  with at  least  one new  release,  and
possibly two or three, but this cannot be guaranteed.

...  Alpha VMS
In Alpha VMS, "pop_shrim_margin" applies only to those shareable  images
used by the basic Poplog executable popsys:basepop11.exe (at least,  for
`proper' saved images created with %nort).

This is because when compiling  code to create a  saved image on top  of
another Poplog image started with %nort, a request to  externally-load a
new shareable  image  does  not  actually result  in  that  image  being
activated; rather,  the  shareable  image is  only  activated  when  the
created saved image is run (i.e, run without %nort).

Hence the externally-loaded shareable image  does not occupy any  memory
locations in the  saved image, and  the "pop_shrim_margin" problem  does
not occur.

11  Incremental Save and Restore

(Note that the procedures in this section are defective, in that they do
not cope with Pop-11 sections and a number of other things. Their use is
therefore deprecated.)

syssaveincr(filename, item)                                  [procedure]
        Saves, in a file called filename, all structures that can traced
        from  the  item  item,  i.e.  item,  all  structures  that  item
        references, that those structures reference, and so on.

        However, although references to any  structure which is part  of
        the  system  are  saved,  anything  referenced  BY  that  system
        structure will not be saved. Thus, for example, if cucharout has
        been given a particular value, this value will not be saved.  To
        obviate this  problem, if  item  is a  list then  the  following
        happens: item  and  all structures  traceable  from it  will  be
        saved, but in  addition, permanent  identifiers associated  with
        any system  words occurring  in item  will also  be saved.  Thus
        every system  word  required  to  be  saved  must  be  mentioned
        explicitly in the list item.

        See sysrestoreincr for what happens  when the file is  restored.

            vars list = [1 2 3 4];
            syssaveincr("save", "list");

        saves the word "list", its identifier and the list it  contains,
        in a file called 'save.psi'.

        filename may be either a word or a string: if a word, '.psi'  is

sysrestoreincr(filename)                                     [procedure]
sysrestoreincr(filename, mode)
        Restores all the structures saved  with syssaveincr in the  file
        filename. Any words that were in  the dictionary at the time  of
        saving are  restored to  the dictionary  if not  already  there,
        associated  permanent  identifiers  being  set  to  their  saved
        values. Any system words  explicitly saved also have  associated
        permanent identifiers restored. E.g. restoring the example given
        in syssaveincr:

            list =>
            ** [1 2 3 4]

        restores the file called 'save.psi',  i.e. the word "list",  its
        identifier and the list it contains.

        filename may be either a word or a string: if a word, '.psi'  is

        The optional mode argument is the same as for sysrestore, qv.

12  System Identification

12.1  Poplog Version

pop_internal_version -> int                                   [constant]
        This is  a simple  integer defining  the version  of the  Poplog
        system in use, in the form

            (major * 10000) + minor

        where major  is the  major version  number and  minor the  minor
        version number within the former.

popversion -> string                                [protected variable]
        Contains an identification string giving the version number  and
        creation date of this Poplog system, e.g.

            '(Version 12.3 Thu Nov 20 20:54:11 GMT 1987)'

        Note that the version number appearing in this string is derived


pop_system_version -> string                        [protected variable]
        Contains the identification  string for the  current system  and
        version, used  by  syssave  and sys_lock_system  to  record  the
        identity of the system in which a saved image is being  created,
        and by sysrestore  to check that  identity when restoring.  Only
        sys_lock_system alters this variable; in the base Poplog system,
        it has the same value as popversion.

popheader -> string                                           [variable]
string -> popheader
        This is a banner string, normally printed out when Poplog starts
        up in normal mode  (i.e. when not  invoked with arguments),  and
        thereafter made  false  to indicate  that  the banner  has  been
        printed. The string is constructed as

            'Sussex Poplog ' <> popversion


           'Sussex Poplog (Version 12.3 Thu Nov 20 20:54:11 GMT 1986)'

popcopyright -> string                                        [constant]
        The Poplog copyright string, printed after the banner.

12.2  Machine & Operating System

sys_host_id() -> host_id_list                                [procedure]
        Returns a  list  of  one  or more  items  identifying  the  host
        machine, or false if this cannot be determined.

        Under Unix System V  Release 4, the result  is a 1-element  list
        containing the result returned by a call to UNIX * sysinfo  with
        command SI_HW_SERIAL.  In general  this will  be a  string,  but
        where the string consists only of decimal digits it is converted
        to a (big)integer before being returned.

        On Berkeley  Unix  systems,  the  result  is  a  1-element  list
        containing the integer returned  by the UNIX * gethostid  system
        call; on  the  HP  Bobcat,  the result  is  false  (since  HP-UX
        currently has no gethostid call).

        On VMS, the result is  a 2-element list containing the  integers
        returned by the sys$getsyi system service for the function codes
        SYI$_SID (System Identification) and SYI$_CPU (CPU type).

sys_host_name() -> host_name                                 [procedure]
        Returns the name of  the host machine as  a string, or false  if
        this cannot be determined.

        Under Unix System V Release 4, this procedure returns the result
        of a call to UNIX * sysinfo with command SI_HOSTNAME.

        On Berkeley Unix systems (including  the HP Bobcat), it  returns
        the result of the UNIX * gethostname system call.

        On  VMS,  it  returns  the  translation  of  the  logical   name

sys_machine_type -> list                                      [constant]
        This is  a list  of  words and  numbers describing  the  generic
        machine type on which Poplog is running. Current possible values

            [hp9000 300]
            [hp9000 700]

sys_os_type -> list                                           [constant]
        This is a  list of words  and numbers giving  attributes of  the
        operating system under which Poplog is running. Current possible
        values for the start of this list are:

            [vms 5.5]                 ;;; VMS VAXs
            [vms 6.1]                 ;;; VMS Alphas/VAXs
            [unix sunos 4.1  ...]     ;;; Sun workstations
            [unix sunos 5.3  ...]     ;;; Sun workstations (Solaris 2.3)
            [unix hpux 9.0   ...]     ;;; Hewlett-Packard 9000
            [unix irix 4.0   ...]     ;;; Silicon Graphics IRIS
            [unix ultrix 4.3 ...]     ;;; DEC RISC
            [unix osf1 3.0   ...]     ;;; Alpha OSF1

        In Unix systems,  the list also  contains another two  elements,

            [... posix vector]

        where vector  is a  full  vector whose  N-th element  gives  the
        revision date of the POSIX-N standard available on this platform
        (or false if POSIX-N is not available). For example:

            [unix sunos 5.3 posix {199309}]
            [unix osf1 3.0  posix {199009 199209}]

        (Note that  vector  is  only  as  long  as  its  last  non-false

        You should  be  careful  when  making  comparisons  against  the
        floating-point  version  number  which  appears  in  this  list:
        representation and rounding errors mean that the = operator will
        not always return true for numbers which appear to be equal. The
        secure method for doing comparisons is by using the macro  DEFV:
        see HELP * DEFV

        (You should  also be  careful  not to  assume the  current  last
        element of the list will always be last, since further  elements
        may be added in the future.)

sys_processor_type -> list                                    [constant]
        This is a list of words and numbers describing the processor  on
        which Poplog is running. Current possible values are:


pophost(word) -> attribute                                   [procedure]
        This  procedure  is  a  property  that  supplies  more  complete
        information about  the  underlying  system on  which  Poplog  is
        running    than    do    sys_machine_type,    sys_os_type    and
        sys_processor_type.  Currently,  there   are  entries  in   this
        property for the following keywords:

            Keyword               Meaning
            -------               -------
            os                    operating system name
            osversion             operating system version
            machine               host machine
            machinetype           generic machine type (eg 'vax')
            systemname            the local name of the machine
            memory                approximate amount of memory
            machineserialnumber   serial number of machine
            site                  where the machine is
            sitemailname          electronic mail address for site
            fullsitename          official site address

        All attribute  values  are  strings  or  numbers,  generally  in
        lowercase only, with  the default for  entries being false.  You
        should examine  the  library  file that  defines  this  property
        (LIB * POPHOST) to  find  the  format  of  the  information  you
        require before writing programs to use it.

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